Vacuum Hardening

With vacuum hardening, the components are treated in a thick-walled furnace at a negative pressure of about 10–3 bar and at temperatures of between 800 and 1,200°C. The components are then quenched using inert gas at high pressure (4-6 bar). An optimal relationship between durability and toughness can be achieved by single or multiple annealing.

Advantages

  • Minimal distortion
  • No oxidation, smooth surfaces
  • Reproducible results
  • Decarburisation-free

Materials

  • Cold and hot work steels
  • High-speed steels
  • Stainless steels
  • Powder metallurgy steels

Available plant sizes

  • Length 600 mm, diameter 900 mm, height 600 mm
Vacuum Hardening

Typical Values for Vacuum Hardening

What hardness can be achieved by vacuum hardening? Which materials are suitable for this? The overview shows commonly used steel grades for vacuum hardening as well as the achievable service hardness.

DIN EN 10027-2 material number DIN EN 10027-2 (short) designation (manufacturer brand name) Service hardness [HRC]
Cold work steel
1.2080 X210Cr12 (K100) 58-60
1.2083 X40Cr14 (M310) 52-54
1.2085 X33CrS16 (M314) 48-50
1.2311 40CrMnMo7 48-50
1.2312 X36CrMnMoS86 (M200) 48-50
1.2316 X36CrMo17 (M303) 45-47
1.2363 X100CrMoV5 (K305) 57-60
1.2379 X155CrVMo12 (K110) 61-63
1.2436 X210CrW12 (K107) 58-60
1.2550 60WCrV7 (K455) 59-61
1.2631 X50CrMoW911 57-59
1.2767 X45NiCrMo4 54-56
1.2842 90MnCrV8 (K720) 63-65
1.2884 X210CrCoW12 59-61
STM UNIVERSAL 60-63
STM WOV 555 63-65
Hot work steel
1.2342 X35CrMoV511 48-50
1.2343 X38CrMoV5-1 (W300) 54-56
1.2344 X40CrMoV5-1 (W302) 53-55
1.2367 X38CrMoV5-3 (W303) 52-54
1.2714 55NiCrMoV7 58-60
High Speed Steel (HSS)
1.3343 HS6-5-2 C (S600) 64-66
1.3355 HS18-0-1 (S200) 64-66
Stainless steel
1.4021 X20Cr13 (N320) 46-48
1.4034 X46Cr13 (N540) 53-55
1.4112 X90CrMoV18 (N685) 55-58
1.4122 X39CrMo17-1 (N335) 47-49
1.4125 X105CrMoV17 (N695) 58-60
1.4528 X105CrCoMo18-2 (N690) 57-60
Powder metallurgy high speed steel
1.3377 HS 3-3-4 (ASP 2005) 62-64
1.3352 HS 4-3-8 (ASP 2053) 64-66
1.3345 HS 6-5-3 (ASP 2023 / S790) 62-64
S290 64-67
1.3344 PM 6-5-3 63-65
1.3202 / 1.3253 S390 PM 64-67
STM EWRA 64-66
SPM 23 64-66
SPM 150 63-65
CPM 10 V 62-64
CPM 15V 62-64
CPM 3V 61-63
CPM Rex 121 68-70
CPM Rex T15 61-63

The maximum hardness depends on the cross-section. All statement without guarantee.

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Material characteristics vacuum hardening (PDF)