Vacuum Hardening

With vacuum hardening, the components are treated in a thick-walled furnace at a negative pressure of about 10–3 bar and at temperatures of between 800 and 1,200°C. The components are then quenched using inert gas at high pressure (4-6 bar). An optimal relationship between durability and toughness can be achieved by single or multiple annealing.


  • Minimal distortion
  • No oxidation, smooth surfaces
  • Reproducible results
  • Decarburisation-free


  • Cold and hot work steels
  • High-speed steels
  • Stainless steels
  • Powder metallurgy steels

Available plant sizes

  • Length 600 mm, diameter 900 mm, height 600 mm
Vacuum Hardening

Typical Values for Vacuum Hardening

What hardness can be achieved by vacuum hardening? Which materials are suitable for this? The overview shows commonly used steel grades for vacuum hardening as well as the achievable service hardness.

DIN EN 10027-2 material number DIN EN 10027-2 (short) designation (manufacturer brand name) Service hardness [HRC]
Cold work steel
1.2080 X210Cr12 (K100) 58-60
1.2083 X40Cr14 (M310) 52-54
1.2085 X33CrS16 (M314) 48-50
1.2311 40CrMnMo7 48-50